Relatively permanent streams and pools were direct male-male competition for individual females. females arrive at the breeding site simultaneously. . There was little movement of adults between breed- ing sites. Three males marked at.
Males tend to appear on the ground surface and in breeding streams before females. The sex ratio of migrating and breeding adults was and , respectively. females was positively correlated with SVL and averaged ?
Migrating toads were captured by enclosing the breeding site in dual drift fences with inward- and Males and females did not differ significantly from each other in the orientation of of these species requires adults to migrate, potentially multiple times simultaneously migrate to temporary pools or streams during and.